Release : txt2ipa converter v0.2 with Kannada Support

Dear All,

Today I am happy to release version V0.2 aakaara of txt2ipa converter in python.

What is new ? :

In this version V0.2 aakaara txt2ipa converter supports for Kannada Unicode to International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) along with Tamil Unicode ! :-)

Read about previous release here

txt2ipa Repo :

Todo :

  • Add other Indian Languages for ipa converter
  • Any language to any language phonetic alphabet converter

Credits :

Thanks to Mr. Govardhan Balaji who gave me Kannada to ipa map !


Posted in Contribution, Release, Software, Tamil | Tagged , , , , , | 1 Comment

Install NetCdf4 with Hdf5 In Ubuntu Linux

Hai All,

I installed Netcdf4 along with Hdf5 in ubuntu 14.04 LTS 64-bit.

You can follow the below steps to do the same.


Download latest source of zlib from here and install it

$ ./configure; make; sudo make install

Download szip from

and extract it.

$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/szip
$ make; sudo make install


We need to find the path of POSIX to enable threads in hdf configuration.

In the configure of hdf5,  –with-pthread option must point to the directory that contains the POSIX Threads library install ([DIR]/includes/pthread.h, [DIR]/lib/libpthread*)

So lets locate it as shown below.

$ locate pthread.h -> /usr/include/
$ locate libpthread.a -> /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
$ locate -> /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/

Download hdf5 latest source from

I downloaded

and extract it and then go inside

$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/hdf5 --enable-fortran --enable-cxx --with-szlib=/usr/local/szip --enable-threadsafe --with-pthread=/usr/include/,/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ --enable-hl --enable-shared --enable-unsupported

Note 1: In above configuration removed –enable-parallel, since it gives error on “mpi.h” while doing make.

Note 2: More over ROMS forum suggest that parallel netCDF will not improve much scaleup on model speedup. so lets go with single mode as for now.


General Information:
HDF5 Version: 1.8.13
Configured on: Mon Feb 2 10:55:19 IST 2015
Configured by: tuxcoder@Ocean
Configure mode: production
Host system: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
Uname information: Linux Ocean 3.13.0-32-generic #57-Ubuntu SMP Tue Jul 15 03:51:08 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Byte sex: little-endian
Libraries: static, shared
Installation point: /usr/local/hdf5

Compiling Options:
Compilation Mode: production
C Compiler: /usr/bin/gcc
H5_CFLAGS: -std=c99 -pedantic -Wall -Wextra -Wundef -Wshadow -Wpointer-arith -Wbad-function-cast -Wcast-qual -Wcast-align -Wwrite-strings -Wconversion -Waggregate-return -Wstrict-prototypes -Wmissing-prototypes -Wmissing-declarations -Wredundant-decls -Wnested-externs -Winline -Wfloat-equal -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wmissing-noreturn -Wpacked -Wdisabled-optimization -Wformat=2 -Wunreachable-code -Wendif-labels -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wold-style-definition -Winvalid-pch -Wvariadic-macros -Winit-self -Wmissing-include-dirs -Wswitch-default -Wswitch-enum -Wunused-macros -Wunsafe-loop-optimizations -Wc++-compat -Wstrict-overflow -Wlogical-op -Wlarger-than=2048 -Wvla -Wsync-nand -Wframe-larger-than=16384 -Wpacked-bitfield-compat -Wstrict-overflow=5 -Wjump-misses-init -Wunsuffixed-float-constants -Wdouble-promotion -Wsuggest-attribute=const -Wtrampolines -Wstack-usage=8192 -Wvector-operation-performance -Wsuggest-attribute=pure -Wsuggest-attribute=noreturn -Wsuggest-attribute=format -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -finline-functions
Shared C Library: yes
Static C Library: yes
Statically Linked Executables: no
AM_LDFLAGS: -L/usr/local/szip/lib -L/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
Extra libraries: -lpthread -lz -ldl -lm
Archiver: ar
Ranlib: ranlib
Debugged Packages:
API Tracing: no

Fortran: yes
Fortran Compiler: /usr/bin/gfortran
Fortran 2003 Compiler: no
Fortran Flags:
H5 Fortran Flags:
AM Fortran Flags:
Shared Fortran Library: yes
Static Fortran Library: yes

C++: yes
C++ Compiler: /usr/bin/g++
C++ Flags:
H5 C++ Flags:
AM C++ Flags:
Shared C++ Library: yes
Static C++ Library: yes

Parallel HDF5: no
High Level library: yes
Threadsafety: yes
Default API Mapping: v18
With Deprecated Public Symbols: yes
I/O filters (external): deflate(zlib)
I/O filters (internal): shuffle,fletcher32,nbit,scaleoffset
MPE: no
Direct VFD: no
dmalloc: no
Clear file buffers before write: yes
Using memory checker: no
Function Stack Tracing: no
Strict File Format Checks: no
Optimization Instrumentation: no
Large File Support (LFS): yes

$ make
$ sudo make install


Download latest netcdf from

I downloaded netcdf-4.3.2 from here

extract it and go inside it.

$ CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/szip/include -I/usr/local/hdf5/include" 
LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/szip/lib -L/usr/local/hdf5/lib" 
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/netcdf4 --enable-netcdf-4 --enable-shared
$ make
$ make check

Testsuite summary for netCDF 4.3.2
# TOTAL: 2
# PASS: 2
# SKIP: 0
# XFAIL: 0
# FAIL: 0
# XPASS: 0
# ERROR: 0

$ sudo make install

Thats’ it!

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Install WRF model in Ubuntu Linux

Dear All,

Here I am going to explain the very simple steps to install The Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) model in Ubuntu or any Linux Distributions.

$ sudo apt-get install m4 csh netcdf-bin hdf4-tools hdf5-tools zlib* jasper libpng-dev build-essential ncl-ncarg gcc gfortran libnetcdf-dev mpich

$ sudo updatedb

$ locate

Here we got path where file present and then we need export the path (till before include directory) to NETCDF environment variable in home .bashrc .

In some machines, it may be /usr/local/include/, in which case export NETCDF directory path upto /usr/local/ .

Add the following lines in your home .bashrc

$ vim ~/.bashrc

export NETCDF=/usr

Save it !

$ source ~/.bashrc

Download latest WRF model sources from

I downloaded v3.6.1 WRF-ARW and WPS and extracted.

$ cd WRFV3

$ ./configure

Select option relevant to your system linux configuration (like i386 or x64_86), fortran type (like gfortran or ifort or pgfortran) and processors (like parallel or serial).

Select GNU GCC option if you want to use GNU GCC compiler!


select model support option (like 1 for basic which I chosed)

$ ./compile em_real

Read the README file of WRFV3 to know more options to compile model.

$ cd ..

$ cd WPS

$ ./configure

Select option relevant to your system linux configuration (like i386 or x64_86), fortran type (like gfortran or ifort or pgfortran) and Grib type (like 1 or 2).

$ ./compile

Read the README files of WPS to compile further with plotting tools (like NCL).

Done !

PS: This compilation progress need atleast 2 GB RAM without swap, or maybe 512 MB RAM + SWAP 2 GB

Project Associate
Centre for Atmospheric Sciences
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

My Experiments In Gnu/Linux ! :

Posted in Atmosphere, Climate, Software, Ubuntu | Tagged , , , , , , | 11 Comments

2014 in review

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2014 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 19,000 times in 2014. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 7 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

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sed command to replace string in all sub folders text files

This will replace all occurrences of "text1" into "text2" of all text files within all multiple sub level folders in current folder.

$ find ./ -type f | xargs sed -i ‘s/text1/text2/g’

f meant for text files

-i option for replace the strings in the txt files and overwrite it.

‘s/text1/text2/g’ in this option,
s -> string,

text1 -> old string
text2 -> new string
g -> global, this is essential if we need to replace all the occurrences in the same input file.

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Hurricane Vs Cyclone Vs Typhoon

What is the difference between a hurricane, a cyclone, and a typhoon?

The only difference between a hurricane, a cyclone, and a typhoon is the location where the storm occurs.
The hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons are all the same weather phenomenon. Scientists just call these storms different things depending on where they occur.

In the Atlantic and northern Pacific, the storms are called "hurricanes," after the Caribbean god of evil, named Hurrican.

In the northwestern Pacific, the same powerful storms are called "typhoons."

In the southeastern Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific, they are called "severe tropical cyclones."

In the northern Indian Ocean, they’re called "severe cyclonic storms."

In the southwestern Indian Ocean, they’re just "tropical cyclones."

To be classified as a hurricane, typhoon, or cyclone, a storm must reach wind speeds of at least 74 miles per hour (119 kilometers per hour).

In the Atlantic, hurricane season officially runs June 1 to November 30. However, while 97 percent of tropical activity occurs during this time period, there is nothing magical in these dates, and hurricanes have occurred outside of these six months.

Sources :

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

How to plot transparent lines / shades in xmgrace / UVCDAT / pygrace

Dear All,

Problem :

How to plot transparent lines or shaded region in xmgrace ?

For example, look at the below plot.

Solution :

I had to plot transparent lines in xmgrace wherever overlaps occurs.

In Grace / xmgrace there is no transparent setting. suggest 3 ways to achieve this.

I took the 2nd option such as “create three different regions“.
1. Regions of Overlap between two data sets a & b
2. Only data set a excluding overlap
3. Only data set b excluding overlap

I written the function “getOverlap

Now see the below plot and compare with the above one, you can see different color in the overlap regions.

Result Plot:
Same plot with overlap region with different color (chosen between red and black color)

Same getOverlap function useful to plot the shaded overlap region also.

To set custom RGB color in grace look my previous post here



Posted in xmgrace | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

How to set custom / more (R, G, B) colors in Grace, Xmgrace UV-CDAT

Hello there,

If you want to set custom or more R,G,B colors in Xmgrace or Grace do the following steps.

Step 1 : go to /usr/share/grace

$ cd /usr/share/grace

Step 2:

there is a file named as gracerc.user

Now edit that file with sudo or root permission and paste the below lines into that file.

map color 0 to (255, 255, 255), “white”

map color 1 to (0, 0, 0), “black”
map color 2 to (255, 0, 0), “red”
map color 3 to (0, 255, 0), “green”
map color 4 to (0, 0, 255), “blue”
map color 5 to (255, 255, 0), “yellow”

map color 6 to (188, 143, 143), “brown”
map color 7 to (220, 220, 220), “grey”
map color 8 to (148, 0, 211), “violet”
map color 9 to (0, 255, 255), “cyan”
map color 10 to (255, 0, 255), “magenta”

map color 11 to (255, 165, 0), “orange”
map color 12 to (114, 33, 188), “indigo”
map color 13 to (103, 7, 72), “maroon”
map color 14 to (64, 224, 208), “turquoise”
map color 15 to (0, 139, 0), “green4”

Now you save that file and go to open grace gui or plot your colors with the above 15 index to chose appropriate color.

* Those values inside the tuple is rgb values.
* The number after “map color” is the color index
* and after the tuple the string is any name u like

If you want to add custom or more colors then add lines like below.
Here I added light black color with index 16 and its rgb value.

Likewise added for light red color with index 17 and its rgb value.

map color 16 to (100, 90, 90), “lblack”
map color 17 to (250, 90, 90), “lred”

Append the above 2 custom colors into /usr/share/grace/gracerc.user

* add as many colors as u like !

To choose (R, G, B) colors you may use the following online rgb color pickers.


Posted in UVCDAT | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Plot Special / Scientific Symbols in Xmgrace, UV-CDAT

Xmgrace is a very nice piece of software to create 2-D line plots.

xmgrace module is available in ‘genutil‘ module in uv-cdat.

Here explained how to plot special characters in xmgrace.

  • Subscript, superscript
    x-squared: x\S2\N
    subscript: 3\s10\N
  • Special symbols, example: Angstrom symbol
  • Special symbols, example: degree symbol
  • For other characters, look at the below table or list here: ascii table with low and high characters. Just use the character from the ASCII Character column between \c and \C to produce the one from the Special/Scientific Symbols column.
  • In the link the most scientific characters are highlighted. 
  • In general, \cASCII Character\C will plot appropriate Special/Scientific Symbol (which are listed in the below table) in xmgrace using UVCDAT
  • Note \c and \C are escape characters.


>>> from genutil import xmgrace

>>> x = xmgrace.init()

>>> stitle = 'Unit : \c0\CCelsius year\S-1'

>>> x.add_string(x=0.5, y=0.9, text=stitle)

Output plot of above snippet



ASCII No ASCII Character Special / Scientific Symbols
33 ! ¡
34 ¢
35 # £
36 $ ¤
37 % ¥
38 & ¦
39 §
40 ( ¨
41 ) ©
42 * ª
43 + «
44 , ¬
46 . ®
47 / ¯
48 0 °
49 1 ±
50 2 ²
51 3 ³
52 4 ´
53 5 µ
54 6
55 7 ·
56 8 ¸
57 9 ¹
58 : º
59 ; »
60 < ¼
61 = ½
62 > ¾
63 ? ¿
64 @ À
65 A Á
66 B Â
67 C Ã
68 D Ä
69 E Å
70 F Æ
71 G Ç
72 H È
73 I É
74 J Ê
75 K Ë
76 L Ì
77 M Í
78 N Î
79 O Ï
80 P Ð
81 Q Ñ
82 R Ò
83 S Ó
84 T Ô
85 U Õ
86 V Ö
87 W ×
88 X Ø
89 Y Ù
90 Z Ú
91 [ Û
92 \ Ü
93 ] Ý
94 ^ Þ
95 _ ß
96 ` à
97 a á
98 b â
99 c ã
100 d ä
101 e å
102 f æ
103 g ç
104 h è
105 i é
106 j ê
107 k ë
108 l ì
109 m í
110 n î
111 o ï
112 p ð
113 q ñ
114 r ò
115 s ó
116 t ô
117 u õ
118 v ö
119 w ÷
120 x ø
121 y ù
122 z ú
123 { û
124 | ü
125 } ý
126 ~ þ

Reference Link :


Posted in UVCDAT | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Release : txt2unicode converter v4.0 velli

Dear All,

This velli v4.0 release of txt2unicode has 25 Tamil encodes to encode2unicode converters and unicoce2encode converters along with auto find encode functions.

I have written txt2unicode converter which will convert any type of encode to unicode in agaram v1.0 version. Read blog post about v1.0 .

In my second release iagram v2.0, I added reverse engine unicode to encode converters Read blog post about v2.0 and v3.0 .

Now I released velli v4.0 version.

Whats new in velli v4.0 ?

* added 5 more Tamil encodes.

It supports for following Tamil encodes.

Supported encodes in v3.0 are
1. anjal,
2. bamini,
3. boomi,
4. dinakaran,

15. pallavar,
16. indoweb,
17. koeln,
18. libi,
19. oldvikatan &
20. webulagam
Supported new encodes in v4.0 velli :
Along with v3.0 20 encodes, following new 5 encodes are added

21. Diacritic,
22. Shreelipi,
23. Softview,
24. Tace &
25. Vanavil

Because of these new 5 encodes, the all 25 encodes no of unique compound characters are changed. All common compound characters among 25 encodes are increased from 916 to 1066 in this v4.0. Read about it here

txt2unicode source repo :

Suggestions are welcome. :-)


Posted in Contribution, Release, Software, Tamil | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments